Germany - Sustainable housing projects
978-3-14-100890-6 | Page 96 | Ill. 1
Sustainable development paths have set themselves the goal of offering countermeasures for structural and climate change, and thus at the same time providing impetus for rural development as well. In this context, cities, settlements, and housing projects are understood as places that are particularly exposed to these negative consequences of global change (e.g. scarcity of resources or danger from environmental risks) and can thus test conscious alternatives as model projects for sustainability.
Model settlements with a sustainability claim
In the sustainable settlement construction of this map, model projects since 1990 are documented, which - differentiated according to the number of housing units - show a sustainability claim. Sustainable housing development, which is focused on North Rhine-Westphalia, southern Lower Saxony, Baden-Württemberg, Berlin, and Hamburg as well as Franconia (Bavaria), aims to conserve existing resources by using sustainable energy sources while minimising energy consumption, thus reducing environmental pollution.
The guiding principles of sustainable housing development include extending the life of products, structures, and buildings, using products and building materials that are either reusable or can be safely returned to the technical cycle or, where appropriate, to the natural materials cycle, reducing the amount of resources required to operate buildings and using sustainably produced and renewable raw materials. Other important aspects are the reduction of transport costs through the use of regional building materials and components, the increased use of rainwater or grey water to reduce drinking water consumption, and the minimalised land use as a result of construction and sealing.
The sustainability claim of various housing projects is shown in the thematic map. The most conspicuous feature is shown as a house structure, while the roof designates another feature. For example, the nationally known Vauban neighbourhood of the city of Freiburg im Breisgau is marked as an example of passive houses with thermal insulation, which at the same time still relies on photovoltaics and has over 1,000 residential units. Other forms of sustainable building include the use of solar architecture, geothermal energy, organic building materials, consistent car-free living, and a balanced water budget. The map thus also includes the German states that have not implemented any model projects: Saarland, Rhineland-Palatinate, Hesse, Thuringia, and Bremen.