Democratic systems of government
Democracy, whether in a republic or monarchy, is the rule of the people. Here, every citizen has equal rights, where he can rely on individual and civil rights. These rights can only be restricted or withdrawn under certain conditions. The key political decision-making processes of citizens are made primarily through universal, equal and secret elections of the Parliament (people's representative) and on referendums. An important characteristic of a democracy is also the separation of powers between the legislature (legislative power), executive (executive power) and judiciary courts.
In parliamentary systems, the government is elected by Parliament and can be replaced by a vote of no confidence. Conversely, the head of state can dissolve the government or Parliament. In Germany, for example, the President has the power to dissolve parliament (the Bundestag) at the request of the federal chancellor if confidence is withdrawn. The legislature and the executive are interdependent on a parliamentary system of government. Opponents of the government are not the Parliament but the opposition.
The remaining monarchies in Europe are parliamentary monarchies. In them, the king or queen as head of state has mainly ceremonial duties. The same applies to Japan, which is headed by Emperor Tenno. In a constitutional monarchy, the monarch holds a stronger position within the executive and is involved in constitutional systems of government and parliament. In an absolute monarchy, no other institution of state is responsible.
In a presidential system of government (presidential system), the legislative and executive branches are more separate. One example is the United States: The president is elected by popular vote for four years and is also head of state and is government and military commander, but not a member of Parliament. The duties of president, parliament and congress (Senate and House of Representatives) are strictly divided. In a semi-presidential system of government, parliamentary and presidential elements merge. In France, the president, as head of state, is directly elected by the people.
Authoritarian government system
In authoritarian systems of government and dictatorships, there is no separation of powers and limited or no pluralism. The public power is exercised primarily through the governance or the government, and usually lies in the hands of a few, such as a military junta, or an individual (a dictator). A special case is the one party system, which often has its origins in socialist systems. Here, the Unity Party exercises the leading role of the state, such as with the Communist Party in the People's Republic of China. Decision centres are the top of party institutions, such as the party chief and Politburo, not the state institutions systems.
The map also shows fragile states where there are no or only poor political systems and where institutions are weak. The most common reason for this is civil war or other violent, political, ethnic and social conflicts. Most of the countries on the World Bank's "unstable" list are on the African continent. Somalia as a state exists only on paper. The East African country is divided into principalities, in which various groups and clans battle for power. In other fragile states, the UN agencies are responsible for trying to restore order and to safeguard peace. In Afghanistan, an international force led by the United States has intervened militarily.
H. Aubel, E. Astor; Ü: C. Fleming