|July temperature |
Because of its northerly extension of over 80° latitude to almost 60° south latitude, the double continent of America stretches to all climatic zones of the earth. North America extends beyond the Arctic Circle out into the subpolar and polar zones. Further south, it encompasses the range of North America, the zone of middle latitudes and the subtropics. Along the equator, it spreads over large regions of Central and South America tropics, which connects further south to the zones of the subtropics and middle latitudes in the southern hemisphere. Accordingly, the different climates show the distribution of major climatic elements such as temperature and precipitation.
In July, the land masses quickly heat up in the interior of the continent, with tropical air masses repeatedly encountered far to the north. Up to approximately the 50th latitude, temperatures reach 25 °C. The warm, moist air masses from the south, associated with the strong summer labilisation, favour the formation of tornadoes. During the summer and autumn months, water temperatures around 2627 °C in the associated humid and unstable air masses of the Caribbean, can cause tropical cyclones, known in North America as hurricanes. They move over the Caribbean islands to the American continent, where they often cause devastation when striking the country.
In South America, the seasonal temperature changes are significantly distinguished by the transition from tropical daytime climates into the extra tropical season climates. While January and July's average temperatures in the equatorial tropical areas vary only slightly, it's not uncommon for daily, large temperature amplitudes to show. With increasing latitude, the seasonal temperature differences increase. This is particularly evident beyond the tropics.
Significantly, distinctive differences in temperature in the north-south direction is through the zoning of temperature with height. The level of frost-free lowland tropics in South America, such as in the Tierra caliente (annual average temperature above 22 °C) and Tierra templada (annual average temperature 1622 °C), are denoted. In the area of the equator, this altitude level of complete frost-free areas reaches about 2,500m and decreases towards the poles. With annual average temperatures from 616 °C, regular frosts occur in the area of Tierra fria. At an altitude of about 3,500 m, annual average temperatures of 06 °C are reached in the equatorial zone of the Andes of Tierra helada. The number of changeable frost and ice days increase considerably. The Tierra Nevada, an area of permanent snow, is indicated and in the humid inner tropics starts at about 5,000 m.
A. Siegmund; Ü: Colette Fleming
Keywords: Central America climate cyclone Latin America North America South America temperature tornado
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